Imagine, two different species, one two legged, one four legged, one sniffs, one watches and they are trying to walk down the street at the same pace.
The dogs do not get it and most owners don’t get it either.
Before you start you will need a few things: a flat collar, a front clip harness, treats, patience and a bit of spare time. You also have to make up your mind if your dog is going to walk on the right or the left. I do not think it matters but in the beginning stick to one side.
We will teach the heel position first as the dog will not understand the concept of a loose leash.
To get going:
• Teach the heel position first and we assume the dog walks on the left.
• Put the leash in your right hand, the dog is on your left side, the leash connects to the dog with a slack in front of you, a handful of treats in your left hand.
• You are making the position on your left knee a high reward zone.
• Get attention, ask for a sit, step off and lure the dog into the correct position (head on your left knee). As soon as the dog is in the correct position, say yes or click and reward.
• Repeat and gradually increase your criterion, reward after two steps, three steps, seven, ten etc
• Do short sessions on your walks.
• Do short sessions without lead in the backyard or in a fenced area.
• If your dog pulls, stop, ask her to come back to the correct position, do a few steps and reward.
Once you start teaching heel you cannot change the goal posts on your dog. This means if you cannot insist on a loose leash but still have to walk the dog you need to change something in the set up. Otherwise you are confusing the dog. I recommend using a flat collar if you train heel/walking on a loose leash but use a front clip harness if you are not training and accept a bit of pulling or lagging.
Once your dog gets the heel position; gradually start relaxing criterion and let your dog walk a bit ahead, behind etc as long as there is not tension on the leash. If the dog pulls, stop, ask him to come back into the heel position, and reward after a couple of steps in the right position.
The most common problems are:
• Too low reinforcement rate, in the beginning you have to reward every step. Loose leash walking is boring and difficult for both of you!
• But then you have to up criterion very quickly.
• Walking straight lines. If you walk a straight line the dog is very likely to surge ahead. Try walking curves or figures of eight.
• Session is too long, keep it short and sweet.
• Reward for coming back into the correct position. If your dog pulls and you ask him to come back into the position and then reward, you will get a yo-yo action. Dog pulls, dog comes back because you are rewarding the coming back rather than the correct position. You have to get the dog to walk for a couple of steps in the right position before your reward.
• Walking on a tight leash. If you hold the leash tight, the dog thinks that is what you want. You need a loose leash.
• Relaxing criterion too early – the dog has to understand the heel position as a high reward zone first.
And by the way, do you know why we walk the dogs traditionally on the left? It is a left over from the military training: Holding the gun in the right hand so the dog has to walk on the left.