We hear a lot about dog socialisation, and it really is essential. A well-socialised dog has a much better quality of life as they can go to many places, including coffee shops, off-leash beaches and even on holiday, without causing trouble to their owners, other people or other dogs.
Dogs who are accustomed to a wide variety of people, dogs and environments will also recover quickly if something scares them. They can deal more easily with new situations and stimuli. I was recently featured in a blog article titled ‘Socialise Safely with Other Pets and Pet Lovers’ for leading pet care company Advantage. Make sure to read it for more information about the benefits of socialising with your dog and how to do so effectively. The topic of dog socialisation is a really important one for all dog owners and I was glad to be asked to participate! Some dog owners may not realise that some circumstances are better for socialising your dog than others.
Start at the beginning (not at the dog park)
Dog parks and off-leash areas are not the best places to start to socialise your dog. These are challenging environments, even for socialised dogs, and require all interaction between dogs to be carefully supervised. My thoughts on the dog park? Check this link. Initially, your dog should be introduced to other dogs at a puppy pre-school or day care where interactions are well-managed and the dogs are set up for success. You should also continue to socialise your dog at a good teenage dog class. Well-run day care centres with qualified staff can also make a huge difference to the successful socialisation of your dog.
Enroll them in structured activities
Another great way to meet other dogs and their owners is through taking up a dog sport such as Agility, Rally Obedience or Fly Ball. Many dogs really enjoy these activities. They have the added advantage of strengthening the bond between you and your pet – dogs and owners who have fun together stay together!
At Goodog, we recommend puppy pre schools that allow for off leash interaction, teenage dog classes for ongoing socialisation, as well as well day care centres with qualified staff. Taking up a hobby in the form of the above-mentioned dog sports can make all the difference to the owner-dog relationship.
We provide classes for every life stage of dogs: puppy pre school, teenage dog training classes, rescue dog training, workshops for recalls, loose leash walking and trick training, Agility and Rally O. We also do in-home consultations for problem behaviours. Dogs and owners who have fun together stay together – contact us to find out more.
Why are we getting dogs when we try to prevent them from doing what dogs normally do more often than not and if we find a lot of things real dogs do inappropriate or even offensive?
Sometimes it seems we consider a lot of the things a dog does as gross, dirty, annoying, or done on purpose to make the humans feel bad.
Yes puppies mouth, soil the house, don’t want to be alone, eat everything in sight, run away, roll in smelly stuff, chase moving things, growl, smell other dogs bums and bite or mouth. They are dogs and that is what they do, even a pugle or an oodle. Despite being called designer dogs they are still dogs. And don’t be fooled by the cute name, chances that these puppies were bred in a puppy mill environment are high. This means these dogs come (in addition to normal dog behavior)with their own set of even more problematic issues.
Labeling normal dog behaviors like barking, digging, jumping up, chasing, growling and many more ‘abnormal’ is one of the problems we see more often in our classes and consultation.It is not the dog who has a problem but the owner who has unrealistic expectations or got fooled by the cute puppy pictures on social media and the glorification of puppy hood.
Our expectations are extremely high, we expect them to fit in with our busy schedule, be active when we want them to be, calm on our terms, eat when we are ready, play when we feel like it and go to the coffee shop because we think it is fun – the dogs mostly think it is rather boring.
We also seem to forget what the needs of a ‘normal’ dog are. We deprive them of puppy play because we neither have the time nor the inclination to make an effort.Play has its purpose and is important for a well balanced dog.It matters and if someone tells you it does not you might want to consider their agenda. Puppy play is not provided because there are too many puppies in the puppy pre-school class, the space is too small, or there is a lack of knowledge of body language and skills to manage puppy play. Dogs and certainly puppies do want to associate and spend some time with their own species and I do think it is necessary for their well-being.
I agree that the dog park is fraught with danger and not suitable for every dog, but most dogs love to have some canine friends. If the dog is not suitable for the dog park, then this can be provided with a group of canine friends they meet on a regular basis, a good day care or dog walker matching appropriate dogs. To have a dog spending most of their life in the backyard and on the leash does not cater to their needs. They need to run, sniff, play, work and have some fun.
We also expect them to behave like ‘fury humans’, dress them up (I am not talking about a coat when it is cold or bucketing down) but dressing up for no other reason than to entertain us.
We get them as companions but leave them home alone for the best part of the day and when we come home expect them to be calm. Dogs are social animals and need company, they are not made to be home alone all day every day. They also need to stretch their legs and run, especially teenage dogs. However, they spend most of their days inside, the yard or on the leash.
We control every move they make, they are told what to eat, when to sleep, where to walk with no choice in any thing that is important to them.
Is the only purpose of a dog to ‘serve’ us? To muddle the waters even more we read books or see films like “A Dog’s Purpose# which portraits dogs as these selfless, altruistic, ‘do-good’ beings whose only purpose is to help us humans. While I will not go into the controversy surrounding the film and I only read the book, the way this unfolded could be an indication of a rather selfish and human centric approach to how dogs are treated.Or as this review says, the purpose of a dog is to entertain or else we will use force.
There are many reasons why we add a dog to our family: they are very cute, we crave company,it is good for our health, the neighbors just got one, we want a running companion, the children have been wanting one forever, to name a few. But rarely do we consider what we can give this dog to lead a fulfilled live.
Dogs are not selfless or altruistic they do whatever works. While we can be pretty sure that they do love us, they are not saving others, winning competitions, being great companions, behave at the coffee shop just because they love us but because there is something in it for them. This can be BBQ chicken, cheese, hot dogs, a ball, cuddles or whatever else makes them tick.
But even so what they can do for us should not be the only questions. I think we should redefine our relationship with our dogs and see it from their perspective, too. To have a happy, well adjusted dog we need to provide suitable outlets for being a dog. This means create time and places for them to meet and interact with other dogs (assuming they like dogs), give them choices on where to go, what to eat and where to rest. Let them dig at least in some parts of the yard, occasionally sniff other dogs’ rear end, have the ‘zoomies’ and give them lots of things to chew.
It also means to have realistic expectations, a dog who just spent hours home alone does not want to be calm and cuddle when you get home, most likely he wants to play, run and go out.As in any relationship it goes both ways and a dog is not an accessory! Make sure you have the time for a dog before you get that cute puppy. Dogs are great companion but we need to give something back and treat them as real dogs.
When we get a new puppy, as a first time or an experienced dog owner or as a competitor in a dog sport, we have certain expectations. We hope for the perfect companion or the perfect agility dog.
Depending on our level of experience we try to make sure we get it right.
We might research first the breeds, then the breeders, look for the best puppy pre-school and best teenage dog classes, join a club or train with our ‘doggie’ friends. However, regardless of how well we are prepared, sometimes it just does not go to plan and turn out the way we expected or hoped it would.
A first time dog owner may have bought the puppy at a pet shop and the puppy started showing signs of being overly fearful already at puppy pre school but no one picked it up. Maybe because the class had too many puppies attending, the instructor was inexperienced, not qualified or just did not see it. The pup now starts to be increasingly fearful, cannot be left alone and is very slow to pick up training.
An experienced owner did all the research, got the puppy from a responsible breeder, attended a good puppy pre school but when reaching teenage hood the dog starts to be more and more spooked by seemingly normal things.
Or a well meaning owner adopted a dog from the local shelter, during the trial period the dog seemed ok if a little bit shy but now after a few weeks he shows reactivity towards other dogs or strangers.
A successful agility competitor got a high drive dog from an experienced breeder but the dog is too highly aroused and despite the best efforts does not succeed in competition and cannot cope with these highly distractive environments.
While a lot of these problems can be overcome with early and appropriate interventions some dogs will never be the dog we hoped for. Despite a lot of work the dog remains reactive on leash when surprised or at close proximity, has a hard time to cope with being left alone or an agility trial environment is just too much for them to perform.
If a dog does not live up to the expectations depending on the owner and the owner’s situation the dog might end up in the shelter and their prospects are rather bleak. In Australia alone 180’000 cats and dogs are euthanized annually, a lot of them for behavioural reasons at a very young age.
On a side note, a lot of dogs end up in shelters for completely normal juvenile behaviours, just because there was not enough socialization and training or the owner was not ready for the work involved in brining up a well adjusted dog. Or the trainers were not able to normalize the dog’s behaviour and put it into perspective.
On the other hand there are owners who embark on a life changing journey with their challenging pup or rescue dog.
After an initial period of denial when owners still try taking their reactive dog to the coffee shop or dog park or hope their puppy might ‘grow out of it’ they start realizing that this is probably not the right way to go. There might be a feeling of guilt because after trying to figure out what had gone wrong they were confronted by the fact that their dog came from a puppy mill or a backyard breeder and they feel guilty for not realizing earlier what kind of problems this could cause. Or they were so overwhelmed that they were looking for a quick fix using outdated training methods based on pain, coercion, force and fear which made the problem worse.
They might even feel depressed or lonely as no one seems to understand what they are going through; especially owners who have really bonded with their dog and giving up on them is not an option. They also might feel alienated from the ‘normal’ dog owning population who seem to think a dog who is reactive on the leash, cannot go to the dog park or coffee shop is the ‘fault’ of the owner at the other end of the leash.
But there is light at the end of the tunnel as the owners adjust and seek qualified help for their dog, come to terms with some of the restrictions such as not going to the dog park and will find new ways of enjoying life with their challenging dog. They might go to a class that caters for their special needs dog and meet other dog owners who are going through the same experience. They might also find suitable options such as nose work or trick training for their dog to participate.
Some owners find an interest in challenging dogs or dogs at shelters and start volunteering to help these less fortunate dogs to become more adoptable.
And some might embark on a learning journey and ‘end up’ as dog trainers. Many professional dog trainers, including me, started out with a dog who did not live up to the expectations. Thanks to my challenging dog I found my vocation and a new career.
When I realized that Zorbas was never going to be the Agility dog I hoped for and after an initial time of denial and grief I started my education to understand what was going on. He came from a backyard breeder, he did a bad puppy class and at that point I did not know what proper socialization is or how to desensitize and counter condition. In time we both adjusted, we now have a deep bond and at almost 14 years of age he is enjoying retirement. I do not say it was easy but if I only ever had ‘nice’ dogs like Shellbe who is doing well in Agility and Rally O and easy to live with I could not relate to what owners of dogs who do not live up to their expectations are going through. Shellbe is fun and exciting but Zorbas taught me much more for the better or the worse.
The only regret I am having is that I did not know then what I do now. I think I could have made a difference.
Most new dog owners find puppy hood challenging but at least they are getting the support of a puppy class as these classes have become main stream. There is also the novelty and the children, who desperately wanted a puppy, are still on board. But once the cute pup turns into an adolescent delinquent, things start to fall apart. Stopping a puppy’s education with a puppy pre school is a bit like thinking kindergarten will get your child into university. It takes a lot more to help the cute puppy to develop in a well adjusted canine citizen than a puppy pre school.
Owners seem ill prepared for the challenges of a teen-aged dog: The emotional response and over the top reaction to some stimuli, forgotten training, increased exercise requirements, need for more mental stimulation, ongoing socialisation and training take owners by surprise.
The dogs don’t do it on purpose but their brain, to put it casually, is still under construction. We have to be aware that they are not giving us a hard time but they are having a hard time.
Like in humans, part of the cortex matures at different rates. The more basic functions mature first where as the parts in the brain responsible for controlling impulse or planning mature later . Emotional responses, especially the urgency and intensity of the emotional reaction are affected during this time. Hormonal changes are another factor, even in neuter dogs.
The dog is also figuring out his place in your family and the wider community. This has nothing to do with pack.
The young dogs now spend more and more time at home in the backyard because they are too boisterous to walk and often refuse to come back at the off leash dog park. They also have gotten into a few run-ins with other dogs. They have become unemployed and will soon be self-employed, meaning they dig up the backyard, eat the pool lights and bark at anything that moves. It is downhill from there and it becomes a self fulfilling prophecy.
We do not take them out anymore, their social skills deteriorate even more and their world becomes very small. They meet the same people and dogs over and over again and if they go out, it is the same old same old. They stop interacting with new people or dogs and they ‘forget’ how to deal with new situations or might get scared. Scared dogs are dogs who react inappropriately or show aggression towards unknown dogs or people.
This pattern can be fatal! Behavioural problems seem to be the number one reason for euthanasia of a dog of any age “it is still the largest cause of death of puppies under one year of age. Indeed, the average age of dogs in Australia, and world wide, is estimated to be around 3.5 years, which is well below their potential biological age.”
A large number of dogs are surrendered to shelters each year. One study puts the figure at a staggering 20 % . The numbers of cats and dogs euthanized in Australia is equally staggering 180’000 (population of 22 million) and other countries are no better.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that dogs are most likely surrendered when they reach social maturity around 2 years of age and often earlier.
Do’s and don’ts
Do keep socialising. While early socialisation is important it does not stop with puppy pre school. Teenage dogs need to be socialising on an ongoing basis. They need to meet new people and dogs, go to new places and have new and positive experiences on an ongoing basis. Attending a well run class for teenage dogs will help with ongoing socialisation, you will get support and realise just how normal your teenage dog is.
Don’t run them into the ground. A lot of owners try to solve the problem by literally ‘running them into the ground’ on a daily basis. However, they are just creating an athlete. The dog is now so fit that they cannot get them tired anymore or worse the dog is physically exhausted but the brain cannot settle.
Do find a balance between mental and physical stimulation. Teach them something new on an ongoing basis, such as tricks or a brush up on obedience sills. Use part of their food for enrichment in food dispensing toys, recycle plastic bottles, pizza boxes, paper rolls etc. Or if so inclined start a dog sport: Agility, Rally O, Nose Work, or Fly Ball.
Don’t just show them who is boss. Some owners think they have to show them who is boss and start using aversive or punishment based methods.
Do keep educating them. A classic is the couch. The dog is on the couch. The owner first ask the dog to get off, then the owner commands the dog to get off and then resorts to pulling the dog off, the dog growls or even snaps. Often this is the beginning of the end for that relationship. Firstly, the dog is not on the couch because he plans on taking over the household and then the world. The dog is on the couch because it is the most comfortable place and he has not been taught to go to his mat.
Do choose your battles wisely. It is well document that the use of force can cause aggression. If you do not want your dog on the couch then teach them to go to their bed instead and reward. Also make sure that the whole family is enforcing the same rules. If some family members allow the dog on the couch and some don’t it will be really hard to understand. If it happens, go into training mode, get a treat and lure the dog onto his bed and reward. This should be your approach for all problems. The dog does the wrong thing because of a lack of training not because he is ‘bad’, ‘dominant’ or ‘will-full’. One more tip if you are not prepared to enforce (in a positive way) what you are asking for, don’t ask!
Do reward the effort. Despite all the bravado they are showing, they are really insecure. Make sure you acknowledge the effort and show them that you love them. We used to say “Nothing in life is for free” but in reality “Plenty in life is free”. You might find Kathy Sdao’s e-book Plenty in Life is Free helpful. Especially the part about 50 treats a day. It basically means reward all the good things your dog does with either treats, praise or interaction.
Do let them make choices if safe and possible. A lot of dogs are not going to the off leash park anymore because they got into altercations with other dogs. If no one was hurt, your dog is not aggressive, he just needs more socialisation. Start by teaching a really reliable recall, then manage the environment by pairing them with suitable play mates. If you have done a puppy pre school that allows for off leash interaction you will know how good play looks. It should ebb and flow, roles are reversed, there are pauses, invitations to play are frequent (play bow, eye flashing, lifted paws etc). If it gets too rough, call your dog, ask for a sit, calm things down and restart. If your dog shows aggression get professional help.
The good thing about teenage dogs is that this phase does not go for years. With the right attitude, additional socialisation, training and a good sense of humour if may only last for a few months. You still might have relapses later but hopefully not as bad and not as long.
Most important: stay connected, show them that you love them, keep socialising and train your dog!
I got told a couple of times lately: Shellbe (my German Shorthaired Pointer who I compete in Agility with) really covered you there!
It was in competition or training when I made a mistake and Shellbe did everything she possibly could to make up for it. And she did! Isn’t that what friends are for?
I hear it more often in Agility circles but it probably happens in other competitive sports as well: I am getting my next performance dog! I have to say this makes me cringe.
What does it mean, getting a performance dog? Does it mean the main aspect of the relationship will be the chosen sport? What happens if that does not work out? What does the dog do the rest of the time? Even ‘performance dogs’ only train and compete part time. There are probably 22 hours left in a day where they are ‘just’ pets. Since when have our egos become so big that it is not enough to have fun in Agility or Rally and get the occasional qualification card or even win? But that it needs to be perfect every time, even for the ones who do not train for perfection.
To be honest sometimes I am a bit disillusioned with competitive dog sports. Most of us are doing this as a hobby and not for living. Our dogs did not ask to be there and do Agility, Rally or Obedience. We make them do it! It is our job to make it fun and if we cannot make if fun I think we should have a break or at least take a deep breath.
Dogs are transported to trials all over the place and then spend 7 hours in their crates to just come out for their runs. Fairly predictably they cannot concentrate, run out of the ring or get marched off the start line because they broke the start line-stay. The dog is frustrated, the handler is frustrated and it goes downhill from there.
Or a dog barks or lunges at another dog at a competition, leashes are jerked, dogs are yelled at. This is a highly stressful environment for dogs and handlers and we all suffer from trigger stacking.
This scenario goes along the lines: The first run was bad because there was another dog too close to the ring, someone left a toy or food pouch on the ground, then a competitor yelled at a dog in close vicinity, it is really hot and windy and flies everywhere. Around lunch time the dog has had it and reacts to lots of stimuli he would normally cope with but not any more.
The same goes for the handler, the judge made her wait, the steward got the numbers wrong and then just when they lined up at the start the timing gear fails or a dog runs into the ring. The handler who normally copes with this has had it. Trigger stacking for the handler, too.
I personally think we are well-advised in dog sports to remain within the first four levels. Level one is ‘Distant Antecedents’ which deals with medical, nutrition and physical environment, for dogs these would mean adequate exercise and food as well as mental stimulation. I do think most handlers in dog sports are really on the case there and are doing an amazing job.
The second level are immediate antecedents which are environmental settings, motivation and cues for a specific behaviour. Are long car rides and extensive crating at competitions really in the best interest of the dog?
Level thre is positive reinforcement which delivers a reinforcer for the correct response. If the behaviour falls apart in competition this could be an indication that the reinforcement history is not long or strong enough. The last acceptable level is ‘Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior – reinforce an acceptable replacement behavior and remove the maintaining reinforcer for the problem behavior.’ We all know how difficult this is in a competition. Our reinforcers are often weak (praise, the next obstacle) and it is extremely difficult to find a non aversive way to let the dog know when a mistake was made.
Common problems like the dog leaving the ring, missing a contact or breaking the start line stay are often met with the dog being removed from the ring. If you remove the dog from the ring you are using negative punishment (we take away the possibility of a reinforcer) and we are already beyond level four of intrusiveness. Is this really the best and most ethical approach to these problems? I do not think so. We should really look at other things, training level, time spent in crate, reinforcement history, nervousness of the handler and the dog, to name just a few.
If you use even more aversive tools like startling the dog or throwing something at the dog, which was recently recommended for a dog who picks up toys in Rally. While this might be effective (which I doubt), there is no place for positive punishment in dog sports. The dog might stop picking up the toys but most likely he will be stressed and not enjoy the sport anymore. For the record, there is no place for this in any ethical dog training. Effectiveness is not enough to justify certain tools. As frustrating as it might be, we have to go back to relationship building, distraction training, better and more precise reinforcement delivery, again to name just a few.
Sometimes it also helps to just have a break from it all. Do other things with your dog, try a new sport or just have a bit of a holiday.
Another often seen situation is a disappointed/frustrated handlers and the dog knows. Disappointment, frustration, tears, anger have no place when competing with your dog. Do not get me wrong I am occasionally disappointed, we all are, it is a human reaction. But the dog does not need to know. I know myself and I make sure my dog does not have any bad experiences in a trial environment ever. Every single time we come out of the ring she gets a jackpot and spends at least 20 to 30 second eating it. She gets this regardless of the result. This gives me time to recoup if it went wrong and she does not realize that I am disappointed. If you get disappointed, try to find a procedure so your dog does not realize it.
Here a few things that could make it easier and more enjoyable (obviously apart from proper training):
Relax. We are not competing for sheep stations (at least not here in Australia).
Try to bring back the fun. Most of us started a sport because it looked like fun and it was, but then it all got a bit too competitive.
Be realistic, if you train once a week you will most likely not win.
Compete against your personal best not the others. If you are, like me, no spring chicken anymore, the younger competitors will probably run faster!
Do other things with your dog, ‘normal’ walks, play, trick training, go to the coffee shop or just hang out.
If you get very nervous and suffer from peer pressure, I can assure you, if you are competing for fun and as a hobby, in most cases only your friends are watching you or maybe not event them. The wider community really does not care, again relax.
Keep it fun, celebrate the good ones, learn from the mistakes and if it went really pear-shape, forget about it.
Enjoy your dog for what they are and not what you want them to be.
One of the main problem areas are sleeping spaces and around food. Like in most cases, prevention is much better than cure.
Children have to learn to leave a dog in his bed or crate alone and respect their personal space. We used to say let sleeping dogs lie and this is still true!
While it is helpful to teach the dog a solid leave it cue it is even more important, especially with puppies, to exchange. They need to learn that we are not just taking things away but in most cases they are getting something better. So if your puppy has taken off with a sock (as long as it is not an emergency) calmly get a treat and ask the dog to exchange for the treat you are offering. Try not to chase, this might just be the game the puppy had been waiting for.
It also pays to do the food bowl exercises a couple of times a week. While dogs deserve to eat in peace, they also need to be safe around the food bowl. Put half of the dry food in the food bowl and while the dog is eating, calmly add more food (dry food and a few treats). Very quickly the dog will learn that your hands coming to the food bowl bring more and better stuff. She will learn that hands are a good thing and not bad news. Your dog should start to look forward to hands and people coming near her when she is eating.
It is also beneficial to encourage positive interaction between children and dogs. A great way is to encourage trick training, fetch or hide and seek and discourage rough housing or chasing games.
Why is it so difficult for some to let go of the dominance myth and associated punishment based methods?
I just re-read an interview with John Bradshaw. If you have not read his book ‘In Defence of the Dog’ you are missing out.
No I will not write another blog on dominance. I think we are well and truly beyond that.
I am pondering the question why are there still ‘professionals’ out there who either steady fast insist that you have to dominate your dog and use aversive training methods or call themselves positive but still use punitive or aversive methods (physically manipulating the dog/puppy, using ‘no’ and ‘ah ah’)?
And why does this group of trainers have more exposure on TV and other media? Does the dominance group have the better marketing? Are these trainers more into self promotion? Do these trainers spend their money on marketing instead of further education? I don’t know.
But there might be something deeper and darker to it. Life is frustrating for some and anger often not very well controlled. The thought of being able to dominate (and hurt) someone weaker might have appeal to some. And if ‘permission’ is given by ‘experts’ to use those methods why would a certain group of dog owners not do it?
There might also be some out there who are just not educated enough and do not understand the basics of the learning theory. Another reason could be a lack of empathy.
We know using fear and intimidation will cause compliance but at what cost to the relationship. It seems common sense and we do not do it anymore with our children (well most of us anyway). So why do some insist on doing it to our dogs?
Shouldn’t we all know by now that ‘force is not compatible with mutual respect.’ It also destroys trust and inhibits learning. Effective learning is a cooperative process in a trusting relationship.
There has to be an element of maintaining ‘cognitive consistency’ Leon Festinger (1957) proposed the cognitive dissonance theory, which states that a powerful motive to maintain cognitive consistency can give rise to irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior.’
Dissonance can be reduced in three ways. Individuals could change their attitude. This is often difficult because people have trouble changing behavioural responses. Secondly, they could acquire new information that supports their original believes or thirdly they could reduce the importance of cognitions.
In dog training this means despite all scientific evidence that the dominance theory used in training is outdate, some reduce cognitive dissonance by acquiring ‘new’ information that supports their belief and reducing the importance of cognition. In this case it goes along the lines. It is better to use the dominance theory and its associated punishment based methods to save the dog and/or get the results fast. This is an argument commonly used by rescue groups and balanced trainers supporting these groups. Basically arguing that the result justifies the means, which is another fallacy in itself as punishment does not establish a different, more appropriate behaviour it merely suppresses the unwanted one. In addition to that the side effects can be severe.
Another reason could be that by now ‘balanced’ trainers are so committed to their outdated knowledge that they will very likely resist any new learning. They have said for years now that a force free way is not working. That means they now lack motivation and ability to change and the cost of learning is immense.
Cost of learning used in the psychological sense. If you learn something new that makes your old knowledge obsolete you have to change everything. It means you are not just adding new knowledge but the new way replaces and questions the old way. It becomes even more problematic if there was a significant emotional investment in the previous believes. 
For balanced dog trainers this means they have now reached a ‘point of no return’. They cannot change without loosing face and significant investment monetary and time wise to catch up. It also means they will only become more resistant and probably defend their old ways til the end.
This means we can only wait for a generation change and until then have to go with Bradshaw: “They [dogs] need defending from people who persist in the old methods and don’t take any notice of science.”
Or there is one other way: Switzerland introduced a licence for dog owners in 2008. A ‘side effect’ of this was that the dog training industry had to be regulated. All dog trainers now have to have a basic education including an assessment (total of 140 hours minimum), at least three years experience in dog training and having passed a practical exam with their own dog, similar to the Canine Good Citizen Award in Australia. These trainers then need to adhere to a code of ethics and do further education to keep the accreditation valid.